This note focus on the drum break in the intro of the tune “Move By Yourself” by Donovan Frankenreiter.
In the above video :
- The original audio excerpt is aligned under the tempo.
- Each line of the grid is a 16th note (double croche). The classical time signature is 4/4.
- It’s usual to count and verbalize each measure, by saying 1 syllable per 16th note, like this : “1 i & a 2 i & a 3 i & a 4 i & a “,
- For the drum break, the 2 snare hits are on “a 3″, followed by keyboard+bass+guitar hits on “& i 1″.
Here is a warmup and maintenance procedure for intermediate keyboard players.
Intended use :
For a quick warmup before a gig, as an everyday exercise to keep fingers and head ready to play, or for education purpose to learn some essential things about harmony, around the cycle of fourths.
- Switch on a rythm or a metronome, set it at a speed you can play everything in time
- For each of the following key : C, Db, A, Eb, using the major diatonic scale, do :
- Play the IV7 chord in root position with one hand.
- Go up 4 degrees (inclusive), you now play the vii7 chord in 2nd inversion. You have just moved your 2 highest fingers 2 steps down (easy).
- Go up again, do that 7 times in total and you’ll reach the root degree I. You have played all degrees.
- Improvise with the other hand, doing bass or melody alternatively, change hand and go to step 1.
- Start on degree ii with a ii7 chord instead of IV7.
- Make arpeggios and pumps with chords, go up/down the scale every two pitches, go chromatic.
- Practice your timing, change chords on different 16th positions.
- Try some alterations, change degrees to go minor / major.
- Take a different keyboard (organ ?) and different rhythms / styles
- Know what degree you are playing, what chord (color) you are playing.
- Count measures in your head while you play (“1 e & a 2 …”).
- Sing while you play
- Locate the “passing 4″ and the blue notes.
- Record yourself, check what’s wrong from a listener’s point of view
- 10 mn everyday is better than 50 minutes a week.
Modulation Majeur/Mineur sur G Puis modulation vers Eb via C6/3 Part A "Stars shining ..."G: G | Eb7 D7 | I | bvi7 V7 |"Night breezes ..."G | E7 | I | vi7 |"Birds singing ..."Am7 | Am7b5 | ii7 | ii7b5 |1:"dream a litt..."G Eb7 D7 | D7 | I bvi7 V7 | V72:"dream a litt..."G Cm7 D7 | G ( C6/3 G Bb7/2 )| I IVdim7 V7 | I |Pinta sur Eb sur cadence V I Puis modulation vers G via Eb>D7 (this) Part B "Stars falling but ..."Eb: Eb Eb6 | Bb7 | I I6 | V7 |"Still carving ... "Eb Eb6 | Bb7 Bbdim7 | I I6 | V7 Vdim7 |"I'm looking ... "Eb Eb6 | Bb7 | I I6 | V7 |"Just saying this" (fin)Eb | D7 ( Em Am7 D7 ) | I | viidim7 |
There is a free tuner application for android phones, called “PitchLab”. It can display the root frequency of a sound. Having a “Hz” number has guided me, it was reassuring on what I was hearing.
Each drum is tuned side by side, with one side on the floor, on a towel.
1. 18″ Bass Drum
- start by the front (batter) side.
- screw with 2 fingers, each screw in good order (1-5-2-6-3-7-4-8).
- take the key and reach the point of no flatness in front of each lug.
- repeat this operation 2 cycles (2 times around the drum using the good order). Go from flatness to first resonance for each lug.
- from this state, go progressively up, by screwing each lug a 1/8 turn.
- ensure that the tuner indicate the same note whatever lug is hit
- I stop at 72 Hz everywhere
- same operation on the back to get 108 Hz (* 2.2)
- come back at the front and set it again to 72 Hz (*1.5)
- fundamental frequency : G1 49 Hz
- calculate the frequency ratios of each side with the fundamental : 72/49 = 1.5 for the front and 108/49= 2.2 for the back
2. 14″ Floor Tom
Same procedure as BD :
- Front side : 98 Hz
- Back side : 98 Hz
- Fundamental frequency : G2 98 Hz
Floor Tom is more sensitive then BD, only a 1/8 turn with the key for a few hertz.
Pitch Lab needs the drum to be tuned by ear first, if they are too much difference between screws, it can be lost, too many harmonics, I guess. It works fine for fine tuning.
2. 12″ Tom
The test stroke has to be very consistent. Seems easier when opposite stroke are tested / tuned pair by pair. One lug can quickly change all the drum.
- Front : 130 Hz
- Back : 130 Hz
- Fundamental frequency : C3 130.8 Hz
2. 14″ Snare
- Front : 196 Hz
- Back : 196 Hz
- Fundamental frequency : G3 196.1 Hz
What’s next … theory.
1. Determine the possible frequency range for each drum.
Write down the lowest frequency that please my ears, tune up until I reach the highest frequency that still sounds good for me (of course, don’t tight to hard, avoid damaging the drum).
Assuming these frequencies are Ok for me on my drumset :
- Bass Drum : from 70 to 110 Hz
- 14″ Tom : from 80 to 100 Hz
- 12″ Tom : from 100 to 130 Hz
- Snare Drum : from 160 to 210 Hz
Next thing could be :
2. Tuning to a specific pitch.
Let’s draw the frequency ranges for each drum on a well tempered scale.
This drawing shows all the intervals that can be done between the drums. Now it’s possible to try having perfect fiths, fourths, major chords, … between them.
Assuming that the style is more important than the pitches, I would lean toward a global “low tuning”, by taste, the sounds seems quieter and the resonance lower.
Assuming the snare drum to be the most heard drum in the set, and that E is a very common pitch on guitars and generally one of the most played (see Measuring the Evolution of Contemporary Western Popular Music).
I would chose E for my snare drum.
Then E too for the bass drum, making a octave unison.
Then make a major chord, with a C in the high range of the 12″ tom and a G on the floor tom.
That also makes the overall set well spread over the available frequency range.
Finally here is the drumset setting :
Tuning to each drum’s natural pitch
I haven’t tried this :
- remove the 2 skins.
- lift the drum with 2 fingers on a lug
- hit the side
- read the frequency on the tuner
- determine the frequencies for each side : use the coefficients determined in the “Tuning process”
- OR try to remember the pitch by ear … good exercise …, OR make a record of it
- tune as described in the “Tuning process”
- latex caulking
- stuffed animal
- fart joke paste
- slim paste (flubber)
- sticky hands
- credit card
- plastic folder
- loosen the lugs next to the snares
- put a cloth on cymbals
Mounting the snares
- Unleash (trigger off), open the clamps.
- Center the snares
- Tighten the fixed clamp
- Unscrew the adjustment screw
- Close the strained (trigger on).
- Tighten the snares
- Tighten the adjustment clamp
- The adjustment screw allows all settings, from OFF to very tight.
- If the trigger is off and the adjustment fully screwed, then the lightest contact with the snares is obtained.
Playing techniques / training
- one hand 16th flat during 12 bars : 85 bpm
- one hand 16th tip/shank during 12 bars : ? bpm
- paradiddle L R LL R L RR / R L RR L R LL, 16th during 12 bars : ? bpm
- double strokes LL RR : 16th during 12 bars : ? bpm
All chords are degrees of the same major diatonic scale, except the last chord which modulates to the relative minor, with a final “major VI” (the I degree of the relative minor scale).
This example sticks to the rule saying that I IV and V degrees have the same functions as vi ii and iii.
Part AI heard ... I heard ... ii7 | V9 | I | IV9 And so ... To listen for a while ... ii7 | V9 | vi | vi An there he was .. ii7 | V7 | I | III7Part BStrumming ... Singing ... vi | ii7 | V | I Killing me ... vi | ii | V | IV | I | IV | bvii7 | VI (fine)
Take a walk on the wild side
D:__:_ Piano Cadence I IV en passant par ii. Passer par D (au moins la note) entre C/2 et F. "intro" :F > C | F^ > C"Holly came ..." :C/2 | F6 | *2"Plucked her eyebrows ..." :C D | F D |"Hey babe ..." :C/2 | F6 | *2
Bal des Laze
D:02:4 Vox Farf Laze D:02:4 Reggae 88Em | Bm/1 | C7 Am/1 | Bsus4 B | G: vi | iii | IV ii | iiisus4 III |
Toto – Rosana
Part A "All I wanna do ..."C: G/2 F: F/2 C C: G/2 V I V VPart B "Not quite a year since ..."Bb: Gm/2 F Bb/2 ... Eb/1 Bb/2 F vi V I IV I VChorus : "Meet you all the way ..."Bb: F Bb/2 Eb/1 ... Eb/1 Bb/2 F V I IV ... IV I V
Toto – Hold the line
Part AA: F#m/2 A/1 Bm7 E/2 vi I ii7 VPart BBm7 C#7 ii7 iii7
A-Ha – Take On Me
IntroA: Bm E/2 A D/2 ii V I IV
12 bar blues progression
I IV I I IV IV I I V IV I V
Here is Jamiroquai’s keyboard chord progression for the tune “Virtual Insanity”.
On the original record, chords are plaid in key of Db.
ii7 in 2nd inversion (the 7th and the 5th are lower pitches).
Rootless 9th chords :
V9 starting with the 9th, the root is only on the left hand.
I9 starting with the 7th, the root is only in the left hand.
IV7 normally (ascending pithces starting from the root).
vii7 starting with the 7th.
bvii7 starting with the 7th.
vi7b5 normally (ascending pithces starting from the root).
Db: Ebm7 | Ab9 | Db9 | GbM7 | Cm7 | CbM7 | Bb7b5 ii7 | V7 | I9 | IV7 | vii7 | bvii7 | vi7b5
The chord progression in the verse is identical to the one found in “Just the two of us” : “I7, vii0, iii”. Both songs can be played on the same chords. “Just the two of us” as two more chords : “ii, V”. We can add them in this song when iterating (see “*5″), we are just adding a quick “ii V I” turnaround progression.
It may be musically more accurate to use the relative minor key on this song because the majority of chords are minors, and the melody is more minor too, but for the purpose of analysis we take the equivalent relative major key. Also we remember that the harmonical functions of vi, ii and iii is equivalent to I, IV and V. “vii” stays appart.
The vii can be “half diminished” (vii0) or “lowered fifth” (viib5) in both songs.
(chorus) Eb: Gm | Gm | Cm | Cm iii | iii | vi | vi Gm | Gm | Gm | Gm iii | iii | iii | iii (verse) Eb7 | Dm7 | Gm | Gm | *5 I7 | vii0 | iii| iii | Gm | Gm | Gm | Gm | iii | iii | iii| iii|
In key of G (Ray Charles’s recording) :
This tune uses all the degrees of a key.
“Relative Modulation” : Modulations are done within the Major and minor scales of the same key (G here).
Impro on chromatic scale, when in G avoid C (4th) and F (b7th).
GM7 : in second inversion.
G7/D : G7 in second inversion.
A7 : in second inversion.
AABA introGM7 | E7 | C7 | C#dim7 | D7 I VI IV bIVdim7| V => Ipart A “Georgia, Georgia ...”GM7 | B7 I III"the whole day ..."Em G7/D | CM7 C#dim7 vi V IV bIVdim7"Just an old .."GM7 E9 | A7 D9 I VI ii V1:B7 E9 | A7 D7 III VI ii V2:GM7 C9 | GM7 B7 I iv I IIIpart B “Other arms ...”Em Am7 | Em6 C9 vi iii vi IVEm Am7 | Em A7 vi iii vi iii"still in ..."Em Am7 | GM7 F#7 vi iii I VIIBm7 Bb7b5 | A7 D9 iii iii V
This tune is rooted on the second degree of the key it’s played in, written “ii” in functional harmony and refered to as the “dorian mode”.
The first part (A) of the tune is in key of C, with “D” being the root pitch in dorian mode.
The second part (B) is in key of Db, is mainly a transposition of (A) a half step up, with “Eb” being the root in dorian mode.
The bass is starting the tune on a D pitch, then comes the piano voicing and the improvisation.
Piano voicing follows what is called the “fourth voicing” : a chord composed of one pitch, its three following fourth and a third. For instance, at the beginning of the tune, the piano’s answer to the bass uses these two chords : (E,A,D,G,B) and (D,G,C,F,A) : a triad chord in second inversion and it’s 6th and 11th played as bass notes.
Improvisation can be performed on different flavors of the D dorian scale, melodic minor, harmonic minor, pure minor, or using the chromatic scale.
C: Dm7 ii7 Db: Ebm7 ii7
The tune is composed of 3 different keys for modal improvisation.
The part on the Eb key is using the F dorian mode, impro over F dorian, Ab or Ab blues is possible.
(intro)Eb: Fm7 | % | % | % ii7(A)Eb: Fm7 | % | % | % ii7 Db: Db7 | % | % | % I7 C: Dm+4 | % | % | % ii+4 Eb: Fm7 | % | % | % *2 ii7(impro)Ab: vi7 | % | % | % Gb: vi7 | % | % | % C: ii+4 | % | % | % Ab: vi7 | % | % | % *2
Part A follows the circle of fourths, with a “shortcut” from IV to vii.
Bb + blue notes
(A)♫ Cm | F ♫ | Bb | Eb ♫ ii | V ♫| I | IV ♫ A0 | D ♫ | Gm | % *2 ♫ vii |iii ♫| vi | %(B)D | % | Gm | % iii | % | vi | % Cm |F9/F7 | Bb | % ii | V | I | %(outro)A | D | Gm | % vii | iii | vi | % C/Cm | D | Gm/A0| Gm ii | iii |vi/vii| vi
The bridge is made of the same chord and melody, lowered 1 step, 3 times, then return to first key.
(intro,A,B)DbM7 | Cm7 | Fm7 | Eb7 Ab7 Db: IM7 | viib5 | iii | ii Valternative considering a modulation (the 2 scales can me used for improvisation) :Db: IM7 |Eb: vi | ii | Db: ii / V(bridge)DbM7 | BbM7 | AM7 | DbM7 Db: IM7 | B:IM7 | A:IM7| Db:IM7
“Sequential modulation” : this tune has 4 direct modulations in part B, the same melody played on different keys, going up in pitches, 3 half steps up from Gb to A, then 1 half step up from A to Bb.
Improvisation can be done on common the common pitches between the keys.
(Intro)F: F⌂7 |Gb7+4 *4 I⌂7 |bii7(A)F⌂7 | % | G7 | % I⌂7 | % | ii7 | %G-7 |Gb7+4| F⌂7 |1:Gb7+4 *2 ii7 |bii7 | I⌂7 | %(B)Gb: Gb⌂7| % | B7 | % I⌂7 | % | IV7 | %A: F#-7| % | D7 | % vi7 | % | IV7 | %Bb: G-7 | % | Eb7 | % vi7 | % | IV7 | %F: A-7 | D-7| G-7 | C7 iii | vi | ii | V (turnaround to I)
Here is a quick “making of” a “nsmp” (Nord Sample) sound for Nord keyboards. It has been created using a Roland RD300sx, Audacity and Nord Sample Editor. Credits & thanks go to them. Please visit the Nord User Forum too.
1. make 3 midi clips playing all the notes at different velocities (80, 105 and 127).
3. Open “Nord Sample Editor”,
click “Add”, chose the wav file.
click “Assign” in the “Multi Sample Per File Assign” option at the bottom
click “no loop” and “Apply Loop” in the “Apply on All” options at the bottom
do nothing on this screen, Nord has done everything auto !
Just export the instrument to the Nord :
I. Perception of a vibration
Here is a step by step process of sound creation and perception.
III. Construction of scales
1. An octave scale :
2. Pythagore’s scale:
A 440Hz * 3/2 = E 660Hz * 3/2 = B 990Hz * 3/2 = F# 1485Hz * 3/2 = C# 2227Hz * 3/2 = G# 3341Hz * 3/2 = D# 5011Hz * 3/2 = A# 7516Hz * 3/2 = F 11274Hz * 3/2 = C 16911Hz * 3/2 = G 25366Hz * 3/2 = D 38049Hz * 3/2
A 440Hz E 660Hz B 990Hz / 2 = 495 Hz F# 1485Hz / 2 = 742 Hz C# 2227Hz / 4 = 556 Hz G# 3341Hz / 4 = 435 Hz D# 5011Hz / 8 = 626 Hz A# 7516Hz / 16 = 469 Hz F 11274Hz / 16 = 704 Hz C 16911Hz / 32 = 528 Hz G 25366Hz / 32 = 792 Hz D 38049Hz / 64 = 594 Hz
1. A 440 Hz 2. A# 469 Hz 3. B 495 Hz 4. C 528 Hz 5. C# 556 Hz 6. D 594 Hz 7. D# 626 Hz 8. E 660 Hz 9. F 704 Hz 10. F# 742 Hz 11. G 792 Hz 12. G# 835 Hz
1. A 880 Hz 2. A# 938 Hz 3. B 990 Hz 4. C 1056 Hz 5. C# 1112 Hz 6. D 1188 Hz 7. D# 1272 Hz 8. E 1320 Hz 9. F 1408 Hz 10. F# 1484 Hz 11. G 1584 Hz 12. G# 1670 Hz
3. The tempered scale
4. Natural scale
1. 528 Hz => C 2. 1056 Hz /2 = 528 3. 1584 Hz /2 = 792 => G 4. 2112 Hz /4 = 528 5. 2640 Hz /4 = 660 => E 6. 3168 Hz /4 = 792 7. 3696 Hz /4 = 924 => ~A# 8. 4224 Hz /8 = 528 9. 4752 Hz /8 = 594 => D 10. 5280 Hz /8 = 660 11. 5808 Hz /8 = 726 => entre F et F# 12. 6336 Hz /8 = 792 13. 6864 Hz /8 = 858 => entre G# et A 14. 7392 Hz /8 = 924 15. 7920 Hz /8 = 990 => B 16. 8448 Hz /16= 528 17 561 => ~C# 18 594 19 627 => ~D# 20 660 21 693 => ~F 22 726 23 759 => ~F# 24 792 25 825 => ~G# ...
Second example, for the pitch A (LA) 440 Hz, the harmonics are : 1. 440 Hz => A 2. 880 Hz /2 = 440 3. 1320 Hz /2 = 660 => E 4. 1760 Hz /2 = 880 5. 2200 Hz /4 = 550 => C# 6. 2640 Hz /4 = 660 7. 3080 Hz /4 = 770 => G 8. 3520 Hz /4 = 880 9. 3960 Hz /8 = 495 => B 10. 4400 Hz /8 = 550 11. 4840 Hz /8 = 605 => D 12. 5280 Hz /8 = 660 13. 5720 Hz /8 = 715 => ~F 14. 6160 Hz /8 = 770 15. 6600 Hz /8 = 825 => ~G# 16. 7040 Hz /16 = 440 17. 7480 Hz /16 = 467 => #A# ...
Pitch: C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B Rank : 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Intervals between C and G : 7 notes E : 4 notes (~A#) : 10 notes D : 2 note (F/F#) : 5/6 notes (G#/A) : 8/9 notes B : 11 notes (~C#) : 0 (~D#) : 2 (~F) : 4 (~F#) : 5 (~G#) : 7 A ? : 8
V. Bridge to the classical and contemporary music theory
VI. Improvisation and composition
VII. Chord Progression
VIII. Practical application on some tunes
Some exotic scales
Intervals are given in number of half tones. - orientale Chaque tetracorde est formé que des groupes de 1/2 tons 2nde augmentés sur chaque tetracorde. 1-3-1 -2- 1-3-1 do réb mi fa sol lab si do A cause de sa symétrie, le tétracorde supérieur de la gamme peut constituer le tétracorde d'une même gamme transposée à la dominante : do réb mi fa sol lab si do sol lab si do ré mib fab sol => Cette gamme évoqué l'Inde. - hispanique 2-1-2 -2- 2-1-2 do re mib fa sol la sib do - tzigane do ré mib fa# sol lab si do Intervalles : 1 ton - 1/2 ton - 3/2 tons - 1/2 ton - 1/2 ton - 3/2 tons - 1/2 ton - andalou do réb mi fa sol lab sib do 1/2 ton - 3/2 tons - 1/2 ton - 1 ton - 1/2 ton - 1 ton - 1 ton - balkanique do réb mib fa sol lab si do 1/2ton - 1ton - 1ton - 1ton - 1/2ton - 1ton et demi - 1/2ton - blues 3, 2, 1, 1, 3, 2
Modes de la gamme diatonique majeure
I ionien C c-d-e-f-g-a-b 1 - 1 - 1/2 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1/2 Superman (John Williams) richesse, optimisme, ouverture II dorien D d-e-f-g-a-b-c 1 - 1/2 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1/2 - 1 médiévale, celtique III phrygien E e-f-g-a-b-c-d 1/2 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1/2 - 1 - 1 Gladiator (Hans Zimmer) : hispanique IV lydien F f-g-a-b-c-d-e 1 - 1 - 1 - 1/2 - 1 - 1 - 1/2 merveilleux, mystère V mixolydien G g-a-b-c-d-e-f 1 - 1 - 1/2 - 1 - 1 - 1/2 - 1 The Full Monty (David Lindup) rock. VI éolien A a-b-c-d-e-f-g 1 - 1/2 - 1 - 1 - 1/2 - 1 - 1 36 quai des orfèvres (Erwann Kermorvant) : gamme mineure naturelle, sombre, mélancolique VII locrien B b-c-d-e-f-g-a 1/2 - 1 - 1 - 1/2 - 1 - 1 - 1 ?
Major Modes Harmony
(ionian) I : the 4th is a passing note (dorian) ii : (phrygian) iii : add a lowered 4th. the 2nd and the 6th are passing notes. (lydian) IV : raise the 4th a half step (mixolydian) V : the 4th is a passing note (aeolian) vi : none (locrian) vii : the 2nd is a passing note, and can be flatten.